What’s Happening in Newark?

The email from the Essex County Prosecutor’s Office came in at 12:37 p.m. on January 2, barely a day and a half into the new year: “Newark’s First Homicide in 2011.” Today (after the initial posting of this story), another email noted the year’s second homicide — which actually occurred New Year’s Day in the early morning, before the previously announced one.

You expect a headline about the First Baby of the Year, but not the first homicide or two.

Right before Thanksgiving, there were seven shootings, three fatal. A month later, just before Christmas, the same thing happened again. Two of the dead were 16-year-old boys.

We at Baristanet get updates from the Breaking News Network for all of Essex County, and so just about every major car accident, fire and shooting comes in the county comes across my screen just seconds after its goes out on the police scanner. My heart sank when I thought about the mothers of those 16-year-old boys right before Christmas. And even though I might go onto the next email, I’m keeping a mental tally marks of the violence. There was a spate of murders in Newark last August, then things cooled down briefly. Mid-fall, carjackings started up like mad. And since Thanksgiving, as the website thehoodup.com said on Christmas Day, Newark has been “wild as f—.”

In November, the city of Newark announced it was laying off 167 police officers — blaming the action on the police union. On Christmas Eve, Mayor Cory Booker issued this statement:

Our city has grown too strong in recent years to allow levels of violence to increase to where they were in 2006 and before. In the face of December’s recent crime trends, we have significantly increased the deployment of police officers throughout our city. For four years we have developed strong partnerships with multiple law enforcement agencies at the federal, state and local levels. In the face of this current crime trend we are stepping up those partnerships as various agencies are putting forth more resources and assistance. Moreover, we have also formed a special task force that includes the County Prosecutor, US Attorney, and FBI, aimed at robberies and carjackings and we are also investing significant manpower and resources at the street level into this ongoing effort. We have made some significant arrests as a result of our work and will continue to increase our enforcement, investigative, and prosecutorial work in the days and weeks ahead. Newark will not accept anything less than strength, peace and security. The city of Newark and multi-agency team will keep fighting until we achieve this for our city and her residents.

To be sure, the problem of violent crime is not strictly a Newark problem. The Star Ledger reported that homicides were up 15 percent statewide last year. There were 364 murders for the year, just one short of a murder a day. But Newark accounted for a disproportionate share and the most homicides of any single municipality: 85.

Cory Booker is an energetic leader and a brilliant user of social media, who not only personally shoveled the streets of Newark after last week’s blizzard but whose tweets about it were heard round the world.

On Sunday, he tweeted this: “Yesterday’s 1st murder of the year is a call to ALL who seek peace in our city that if we don’t change we can’t expect our city to.”

Here in Baristaville, this spate of violence is frighteningly close. There are too many great institutions in Newark, from the Newark Museum to NJPAC and the Prudential Center, to let the city become a present-day dystopia. Many of us write checks to fight disease and hunger on the other side of the world, while this mayhem and suffering takes place just down the road.

On Saturday, Chris Christie administered Joe DiVincenzo’s oath of office in a ceremony attended by Cory Booker and many other Essex County bigwigs.

According to the Star Ledger, first on DiVincenzo’s agenda for 2011 is building a $4 million boathouse with rental boats and restaurant in the Orange Reservoir.

Photos by Paul Sableman.

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  1. “According to the Star Ledger, first on DiVincenzo’s agenda for 2011 is building a $4 million boathouse with rental boats and restaurant in the Orange Reservoir.”

    As a certain local pol is fond of saying, “oh, that’s different money”.

    The 4 million dollars for the boathouse will, no doubt, come from the Green Acres Open Space bonding issue (borrowed money) duly passed by our liberal progressive electorate.

    …and so it goes…

  2. “There are too many great institutions in Newark, from the Newark Museum to NJPAC and the Prudential Center, to let the city become a present-day dystopia.”

    As if Newark were some Shangri-La.

    Sadly, reason is STILL the same: out of wedlock births and drop out rates among Blacks continues to astound. Because of it, there is virtually NO family structure. So why do we continue to be surprised by the awful crime rates?

    Booker can tweet, facebook and let the world know he can use a shovel, but until he and his community face the sobering stats facing Black America– him shoveling against Mother Nature’s fury is an apt metaphor.

    It’s easy to blame a lack of cops. It’s hard to challenge a culture.

    God Bless ’em!

  3. “It’s easy to blame a lack of cops. It’s hard to challenge a culture.”

    Sadly “challenging a culture” isn’t much help when you are being mugged.

  4. Also, why are we surprised at a rise in crime during one of the worst economic climates in recent history? Bad economy + layoffs of cops = DISASTER. And not just in Newark, in all large cities.

  5. What’s happening in Newark? The same things that’s been happening since the mid the 60’s, no need to rehash specifics.

    Unfortunately, all the money taken from communities all over the state and thrown at them and other cities hasn’t helped. A lot good people live in these cities but they continually vote for politicians that often leave office wealthy or in handcuffs. These towns are governed by empty promises and the people of these towns just don’t see through it. The only people that seem to benefit are political insiders. The average resident only see their situation worsen mayor after mayor, promise after promise. Sharp James takes millions from the Newark Airport port Authority land lease in ’02 and does what with it? Invest in the Newark’s infrastructure? Nope, build an arena.

  6. That Arena is providing a lot of jobs down there. And a lot of that area is cleaned up. gotta come down harder on the drug dealers and the gangs. And how come ESSEX COUNTY COLLEGE does not have a swimming pool. They have a basketball court! OH! I FORGOT THOSE PEOPLE DON’T KNOW HOW TO SWIM. Yeah! Right!

  7. Concession hawkers and ushers two or three nights a week for 3 hours is not exactly what you call a meaningful job. I look around that arena on event night and I know a handful of people that work there that don’t live in Newark. That James/ PA deal took a lot of money away from that city that could have been used to at least begin to make improvements and go towards schools.

  8. Mrs. Martta, the economy/crime stat is a bit of a myth. In 1996- a time of an economic boom- Time ranked Newark “The Most Dangerous City in the Nation.” But crime was way down in 2008 when the economy tanked.

    As for handcuffs ROC, the folks needing to challenge a culture are the residents. Cops and politicians don’t live in crime infested neighborhood (though Booker does), so their answer is COPS!

    While true, sustainable change must come from the residents– a stable family structure creates a strong and safe community. Corny but true.

  9. prof is right. Though there are many things that need improvement in Newark, and though corruption and mismanagement is rampant, the underlying cause of crime etc. is the total breakdown of family and the continued rise of a culture of violence and neglect. That has to change before any progress will be seen. I think that Booker is a good man and that he’s doing his best — he has a big job to do. But he is head and shoulders above those who have occupied his chair in the past.

    Not all of Newark is in this mess. The Ironbound is a vibrant community full of thriving businesses and a solid base of residents. Parts of the North Ward are the same. This would seem to argue that things don’t HAVE to be as they are in the Central Ward.

  10. As Prof & Cro stated, family structure is the key.

    Though it is not corny, it is a building mechanism.

    When there is family, there is a need for a community to support the family. The family contributes to make the community work as a whole. When the community is built, there is a vested interest to be certain things are available to sustain the the community. Therefore the family will get involved with decision-making roles. Perhaps by voting, or by attending meetings, or running for office.

    This is how the community changes itself. From within.

    Just like beauty comes from within – you can put all of the aesthetics into Newark (which I happen to love and often go to to visit friends & attend events), nothing will bring it to a renaissance level until the residents are transformed.

  11. I don’t believe it. I agree with Cro that the Prof is right. Debbie like a typical lefty worries about the “mothers”. Doesn’t she get it? The mothers weren’t/aren’t there. The mothers are usually birthing in their teens, handing them off to 30 something grandmothers or playing fractured family roulette. The fathers are thugging around bragging of how many girls the’ve impregnated because that was their background. Pouring millions of Abbot-Burke douchebag lawyer/supreme money into the schools is worse than pissing in the wind because it devastates communities in the rest of the state as we are finding out.

    As long as the media puts up role models of women hating, violence idolizing, thug culture such a Biggie, Sixpak, Snoop etc. and the people keep supporting them it becomes a closed feedback loop that destroys.

  12. I’d advise against any google translations, prof. Though they can often provide unintended laughs.

    I’m sure that there must be at least one professor of romance languages left at your institution. Doubtless the administrators are anxiously awaiting his demise, but while he (or she) is still on campus, ask for a little professional courtesy and get a real translation.

  13. You can Twitter your life away but you can’t Tweet it back. It’s gone.
    There will be no “Renaissance” for Newark.
    The tweets will eventually succumb to the sturm und drang of gunfire and drugs.
    The politicians will be climbing up to the dome of city hall, scrambling to board the last chopper.
    The cops will all be gone, barrackading the doors to their own homes, gun cabinets unlocked.
    There will come a time when “The Road” will look like a Disney movie.
    Then Twitter for Deus ex machina.

  14. Yet in the place where, 35 years ago, people really WERE climbing up to board the last chopper, there now remains a prosperous city. Folks survived, and the city endured. Newark will not succumb, anymore than crime-ridden New York did, or New Orleans did, or Philadelphia did. If we want to go back in time, there were those who would have laid odds that London, Paris, Berlin, et al would fade away. They did not.

    By the way, the Newark cops who will be hunkering down in their homes will be doing so in Kearny, North Arlington, and Belleville. Not in Newark.

  15. i agree with profwilliams. its a cultural dilemma. right now being hood, reppin your block, slangin, running with gangs, chillin at the trap instead of goin to school, etc is more important to a lot if newark’s black 14 year olds than preparing for higher education and ultimately some sort of career. what sucks is the funding is available for this sort of thing and were an inner city black kid to totally rock highschool he/she will go to college for free. the opportunity is huge. rock college and then set yourself up for a sick career. a black college educated male is in massive demand at nearly every sort of company. its the type of thing where you could be making 100k per year by the time you are 26 and instead the choice is to sell dime bags and 8 balls, rip off deli’s, and gang bang. they are probably only pulling 20k per year and the risk associated with that income is massive. Juxtaposing these concepts seems ludicrous however it is a super fair comparison. So the question remains. HOW DO WE INSTILL THIS MESSAGE?

    We’ll get back to you on that, we’re too busy tweeting the mundane crap of our everyday trivial doings.
    Looking out my window at Nero fiddling, making a cup of tea. about 1 hours ago.

  17. Hey PAZ quite a few are now rechargable and bluetooth enabled. You can pair them to your cell phone, TV, MP3 player.

  18. Hey RoC,

    “Officials Monday did not put a price tag on the proposed development as bids have yet to come in for the golf course and parking lot. The development will be funded through the Essex County Improvement Authority’s Pooled Government Load Program and the county’s capital budget, but DiVincenzo said the goal is to create attractions that are self-sustaining.

    As an example, he said the carousel the county added to the zoo generates a quarter of a million dollars in revenue a year. He said he expects revenues from the miniature golf course to equal that.”


    I hear that the minature golf course generated $37,000 in revenue in the 1xt 2 weeks

    Essex County Executive Joseph N. DiVincenzo, Jr. thanked the public for making the Essex County miniGOLF Safari at the Essex County South Mountain Recreation Complex in West Orange an instant success. Since it opened on Thursday, September 16th, 6,578 rounds of golf have been played and $37,414 in new revenue has been created.


    “The mini-golf course and parking lot were designed by French & Parrello of Wall Shauger Property Services. They were awarded a competitive bid contract of $4,868,944 to perform the construction work.

    However, DiVincenzo wants the numbers to be clear.

    “The $4.8 million is for work on the entire complex. The course cost $800,000 and will bring about $250,000 a year alone in revenue,” said the county executive. He said the project is being paid off through a low interest loan from the Essex County Improvement Authority (ECIA) which the county is using Open Space dollars to fund. Also DiVincenzo asserts that every dollar of revenue from the mini-golf site will go to the Turtle Back Zoo and the upcoming Boathouse project.

    “We can’t wait for the economy, we have to be in front of it,” said DiVincenzo “The state and federal government won’t control our destiny, we will.”

    Officials from Shauger Property Services said that 98 percent of the 200 or so workers were from Essex County.”

    Sure beats the Bloomfield redevelopment project where money only goes out and revenue doesn’t come in.

  19. Saying ‘it’s’ the family structure that needs fixing is like saying humans need oxygen to live. It’s a necessary but not sufficient condition. You cant have a stable family system without a stable economic system and vice versa. Both of those require a decent political class. This is where most people give up and join Paz in a country band playing the fiddle.

    There are schools in Newark that are top notch. There are Abbot succes stories that aren’t replicated partly because monied idealists/egoists use Newark as a lab for their social experiments. There’s little long term coordination to work on problems that might take a generation to seprogresses on. Who’s got time for that?

  20. Cro,
    I don’t dispute the statistic about unemployed college educated blacks. However, that Algeron Austin is the typical intellectual that has worked in agenda driven think tanks (the one he runs now according to wiki is funded 30% by Unions) and colleges his entire life and never stepped into the real world.
    He basically says since mostly college educated blacks are employed in government and the Obama tax cut extensions will cause government cut backs and further job loss. Well these cuts have in existence for 8 years now and they haven’t lost their jobs. So basically the tax payer is supposed to pay for government employees that are not needed just to keep them around? Is that guy kidding?

    I know you were just using that article as support of your point so I’m not having a go at you. I just read the article and wanted to comment.

  21. “The $4.8 million is for work on the entire complex. The course cost $800,000 and will bring about $250,000 a year alone in revenue,” said the county executive”

    If you amortize 4.8 million over 20 years(max. allowed for government bonds) at 3%, you get $319,000 per year in payments. So this thing will have a $69,000 per year DEFICIT BEFORE a single salary is paid or any supplies, maintenance or utilities are paid.

    Nice going!

  22. So what do we do, prof?
    Do we provide government funded programs to foster family and community values? (ROC would go ballistic as would the nanny staters).
    Do we have mandatory vasectomies for every black child who reaches the age of puberty? (Don’t think so.)
    Do we remove every child being raised in a dysfunctional environment and have them fostered in a loving, enriching surrounding? (not likely)
    I think we do nothing.

  23. Damn cro, I should have taken French!! So this one time in my life- some 20 years after graduation- I could use it. This reminds me that despite my 12 years of Spanish, the only time I needed to speak it was to a gardener 3 years ago.

    But still, students are choosing with their feet as they decide NOT to study languages. So when schools close programs, it’s usually because no one is interested in them. See the link below the SUNY Albany, which contains this: “The French department has seven full-time faculty members and 40 majors, while 15 doctoral students do “a great deal of the undergraduate instruction,” Dr. Phillips said. In Russian, there are three full-time faculty members for 19 majors. By contrast, the communications department employs six full-time faculty members for 520 majors.”

    (My view has always been the same: students self-select. IF a student is interested in Majoring in a Language or Comm, or Bio, he or she will find the school with the program. But a 6:1 student/faculty ratio is absurd. And expensive.)


  24. There is certainly a cultural aspect, but decades of corruption undermining any attempts at alleviating the forces that make that culture the easy choice do not help.
    It’s a long road, but I see improvement. Newark’s gang problems due to the “war on drugs” won’t go away until we realize that prohibition doesn’t work, and the gang members get out again every 7 years to create another cycle of violence and train another generation of thugs.

  25. At the college level prof, certainly students self-select. You could even make that argument for the last two years of high school. But we don’t generally say its OK for students to pick what they’re interested in to study — if they did, I wonder how many kids would be sitting in 7th grade math classes or 9th grade bio labs? Exposure to other languages at an early age is, in my view, of enormous value. Later, those who wish to move on in the study can, and those who do not will choose another path. I’m fine with that.

    And really, in NEW JERSEY, on a campus, you couldn’t find ANYONE with whom to converse in Spanish?

    There is no doubt that enrollment is declining for many of these language departments. French has taken a hit, Italian as well. Spanish remains pretty strong, and there are programs in Arabic and Chinese and the like that show growth. Still, for those types of languages a real commitment must be made, and I would agree that a twice a week sprinkling of Mandarin for a third grader doesn’t do much, especially when that cash could be better used. But really any decent student can leave high school with a rudimentary, basic ability in Spanish or French if they work at it, and if they’re taught well.

  26. from 1975-1977 I worked as an Income Maintenance Technician at the Central Ave office in Newark. I had a caseload of 189 families with children and a missing parent. Many of the men didn’t care about their kids or trying to maintain any sort of family unit. I met lots of wonderful women who were trying to do the right thing but the environment was stifling. I sure as heck don’t know how to fix it but I have a lot of respect for people living in Newark who are trying to make it a viable place to work and live. My wife and I support NJPAC, go to the Pru and eat down neck. I for one am rooting for Corey to turn the city around

  27. Prof, and Cro are correct. The social fabric that was destroyed in the ’60s needs to be restored somehow. Many well meaning govt and social programs wound up enriching corrupt politicians while the plight of those that were most in need grew worse and fostered dependance. Restoring social responsibility is like steering an aircraft carrier, in that it takes a long time to turn things around. Throwing good money after bad is also not a solution. We need tough love and fundamental change. The key is judicious dissemination of aid, and the programs should not be viewed as perpetual in nature. Self reliance should be stressed from the outset. Finally, never underestimate the power of the church to reinforce tenets of responsibility, provide guidance, and a helping hand. I’ve seen this up close in Caribbean communities, and it works. The state “in loco familias” experiment has been an utter failure.

  28. My money is still on education, the kind that suits the needs of the students. That means addressing learning styles, diversifying instruction, employing sound researched strategies and keeping expectations high. That, imo, is how society can help people grow beyond their substandard lives.

    Cro students at the elementary level are very successful, in literature based reading programs, self selecting instructional materials. Free choice is highly motivational. Of course their are boundaries relating to levels but still when a student has a range of choices rather than one dictated story their reading skills are greatly enhanced at a faster rate.

    As for success in language, well that again depends on the interest and learning styles of even the best students. I was well taught but my years of Latin and French were no more than a pain for me.

  29. “Choice” is relative, Dag. These students may be selecting from among several options, but there is NO option to simply pass on the exercise entirely. They must take language arts, maths, etc. — no argument. So offering a degree of choice within that confine is great — I’m all for it.

    I would argue that a subject that was a “pain” for you was not taught well. Of course not every language student is not going to become a translator at the U.N., but a failure to attain a basic fluency is a failure, period. How OK would we be with adults saying, “I had 4 years of maths in high school and I don’t remember a thing”. Or, “I studied basic grammar and sentence structure in junior high school but I can’t construct a letter.”

    We would see this as evidence of poor teaching. It is no less so with regard to languages.

  30. If I were my 9th grader today, I would self-select to drop gym. Next year, in order to get all the ‘required’ courses and continue with the one ‘elective’ that she *actually* likes, she will have to take ‘zero-period’ gym. Great … dodgeball at 7AM. What better way to stimulate the brain. 😐

    (Don’t know how she’ll fit in driver’s ed, or all those other requirements such as digital basket weaving and personal coin-counting, either….)

  31. I can’t wait for the day when computer languages are considered ‘foreign’ languages. If colleges said they preferred candidates with computer language skills rather than foreign languages on applications, we’d see the change lickety split.

  32. A change from what, to what, bebop?

    I can’t think of a local high school that does not now offer computer courses at both basic and advanced levels.

  33. cro Even within basic skill instruction there can be choice and that is what I’m suggesting. But after that I have real concerns about required courses for all. We simply are not meeting the current needs of all students and that means for the gifted as well as the disadvantaged. Trust me, I had excellent foreign language instruction. I was just not interested at the time. French became alive for me the first time I went to France. Latin, was a pain, but I could sing a mean Tantum Ergo!

  34. I suppose it would be a change in emphasis. When I was in high school we were encouraged to take 3 years of a foreign language because that’s what college admissions people liked to see. Like the sheep we were, we did what the college counselors suggested for fear of a dreaded ‘thin’ rejection envelope from a college.

    For many students it was a waste of time and when school was done that was the end of foreign language study. If there was a bigger move to a computer language at the very least there would be more computer literate people around, which seems a skill worth having.

    Also, if a school has to make cuts and decide between a computer science teacher or foriegn language teacher–I’d go with the former.

  35. Ah cro, I like how I speak of college students speaking with their feet- hence the link to an article about Colleges- and you turn it around to choice in 7th grade. Obviously, no one is saying middle school kids should choose- laws dictate what they should take anyway.

    But in college? C’mon. Kids don’t see a value Majoring in a Language. And considering how many parents ask: what kind of job will my kid get with this degree, I bet their parents don’t either.

    As for you idea that equates math and English to a Foreign Language, one becomes proficient in these areas by PRACTICE. With math, most folks use it everyday, same with language/grammar. But Spanish? French?

    Again, I took it for 12 years. And because I had no opportunity to use it, it didn’t take. Because unlike say, Europe, I can drive 3000 miles and folks STILL speak English. So until Pennsylvania goes back to German, I’ll stick with English.

    Moreover, I would support studying music or art over a language as their joys can be experienced more often than the need to speak another language.

    (Lastly, in 5 years technology will make it possible to travel the world and converse in any language without “knowing” it.)

    (I won’t even bother to discuss the whole growth in “Arabic and Chinese” idea.)

    Oh, well…. Off to Ikea to get a RINGSKÄR faucet. Not sure how to say it, or what those two dots are above the “A,” but I’m sure someone will help me.

  36. You’re completely off the mark once again, prof. The idea that some sort of “technology” will replace the richness and nuance of ANY language is laughable. As far as practice is concerned, I go back to my original question –in New Jersey, on a college campus, you found NO opportunity to “practice” Spanish? That’s amazing. Or sad. I’d go with the latter.

    I am also less interested in answering questions from parents like “what kind of job will he/she get with this major”? Its an absurd question unless one is specific about goals — med school or law school or business school. In the meantime, I’d wager that the great majority of folks in literally thousands of professions are involved in a field they did not specialize in in college. As a matter of fact, for many the fields (computers, etc.) did not even exist. Good for you that you take the time to answer questions like that. I wouldn’t.

    I’d love to continue, but I must go “practice” my everyday calculus and make final preparations on my handy “translator” which I’m taking with me to Mexico.

    Bebop, I’m afraid we’ll just have to disagree. C’est la vie, or if you prefer, binaryquarklineram.

  37. In rereading my post to the prof, I can see that I was a little too harsh on our own “America First”-er. My apologies.

    In the spirit of reconciliation, I will lend my handy “translating technology” to him as he takes his wife to Paris in April for a much-deserved vacation.

    Salut, mon ami!


  38. NEWARK is a product of well executed social experiments. What we have today is a result of decades of neglect and government programs since the New Deal.
    The only method to resolve the plight of Newark is to invest into demagnetizing all of its woes. Unfortunately, no one wants to invest the money and the surrounding neighborhoods don’t want to fix Newark.
    Since the New Deal –
    Title 1/Red-Line most of Newark to force a certain social-economic element to concentrated areas while encourage those families/wealth to move elsewhere
    Federal Highway – use eminent domain to break down neighborhoods and put the displaced citizen in huge housing projects for highways
    Inner City Neglect – spend as much money on suburbs, highways and avoid railroads (most of Newark) and its infrastructure
    Shuffle the poor – allow richer neighborhoods to send their poor/low class citizens to Newark for a price tag – decreasing Newark ability to fend for itself but ridding other communities of their poor.

    If you don’t fix the above you can’t change Newark.

  39. I prefer Teddy my friend. I argue FDR was perhaps the worse president besides GW Bush when you consider long lasting impact of his legacy on large segments of our population.

  40. Forget Rt. 280 or the Colonnades. Eminent domain has been going on for centuries. In Newark you can take it back to the Morris Canal.

  41. I digress from original topic but it depends whether you benefit from New Deal (Democratic) policies or affected by them (e.g. workers who couldn’t receive social security, vets who couldn’t buy a home in an upward new suburbs and instead force to buy a dilapidated home in decaying Newark, or view major capital investment projects in your neighborhood but unable to get a job on those projects). FDR is up there is consequences to his reign as president.

    EWR reversal can be accomplished by the following:
    a. Return the population of poor/low income families sold to EWR with return to sender/township (e.g. take them back Montclair, Millburn, etc. etc.) and allow the offpsrings to eradicate your school distracts. EWR would have to pay to ship them out but it is an investment (like Castro sending his criminals to Miami).
    b. Build middle class housing in the empty land/space and offer serious tax credits to attract young professional couples
    c. Build a school district/system within above community so parents are involved and participate in the raising of their kids – limit school district to the community/charter.
    d. Give businesses serious tax credits to build in the above community and realize if they have a customer base they can be profitable
    e. Reverse and re-gentrify the center of EWR and you may get ideal results.

    The above requires patience, money and disregard of race issues because some people will be left behind in the process.

    The current methodology of building entertainment facilities like Prudential Center & PAC gets them in for about 3-4 hrs and only folks making money are parking attendants.
    Anyway, crime will not reduce as rats in a cage have no reason to change their behavior. They are rats in a cage and basically protected and isolated from normal society so whether in EWR or prison or casket – the mindset allowed to flourish is I am in a cage and will always remain in one.

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